EMQX Dedicated New Feature: Event History is available for private beta test. →

IoT in Healthcare: Connecting Medical Lab Devices with MQTT

Ernest Russell
Apr 2, 2024
IoT in Healthcare: Connecting Medical Lab Devices with MQTT

The Current Landscape and Challenge of Healthcare

Traditionally, medical labs have operated with standalone devices, each performing specific functions in isolation. These devices generate valuable data critical for diagnostics, research, and treatment plans. Often, this valuable data is siloed and not immediately available to healthcare professionals.

With many medical devices spread across a hospital campus or campuses, the challenge lies in integrating and efficiently managing this diverse array of data and choosing a common communication protocol that can scale reliably to support real-time data accessibility.

Common Protocols in Medical Device Communication

Communication is crucial in ensuring seamless operations in the intricate world of medical laboratories, where precision and accuracy are paramount. The diverse array of equipment in a lab often necessitates the use of various communication protocols. Let's delve into the world of these protocols and understand their roles in the intricate dance of data exchange within medical settings.

HL7: Bridging Healthcare Systems

Health Level Seven (HL7) rises to the top as a popular standard in medical data exchange. HL7 has developed the world’s most widely used interoperability solutions for patient care, clinical research, and public health for over three decades. This protocol facilitates the seamless flow of information between different healthcare applications.

ASTM: Standardizing Communication Between Lab Instruments

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) lends its expertise to defining standards for data exchange between medical laboratory instruments and computer systems. These standards ensure uniform communication, creating a harmonious symphony among lab equipment.

DICOM: Picturing Precision in Medical Imaging

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) steps into the spotlight when transmitting, storing, and sharing medical images. While commonly associated with radiology, its relevance extends to labs dealing with imaging, ensuring a standardized approach to handling visual medical data.

LIS Interfaces: Connecting Laboratory Information Systems

Laboratory Information Systems (LIS) form the backbone of lab operations. These systems often incorporate other interfaces, either proprietary or based on standards like ASTM or HL7. For example, the widely used Labware system showcases the significance of these interfaces in ensuring seamless data exchange.

Serial and Ethernet Protocols: Bridging the Generations

In the ever-evolving landscape of lab equipment, communication methods vary. Some older or simpler devices rely on direct serial communication (such as RS-232, RS-485) for connections. In contrast, modern setups favor Ethernet-based protocols, fostering connectivity within local networks.

Custom or Proprietary Protocols: Tailoring Communication to Precision

Specialized or high-end lab equipment often boasts its own language – custom or proprietary protocols. Crafted by manufacturers, these protocols are tailored to the equipment, ensuring efficient communication and control at the cost of universality and compatibility.

IoT in Healthcare: Why MQTT is a Great Choice for Medical Device Connectivity

MQTT, a lightweight and efficient messaging protocol, emerges as a game-changer for medical laboratories seeking seamless device connectivity. MQTT uses a publish-subscribe messaging approach that disconnects clients sending messages (publishers) from those receiving messages (subscribers). This decoupling allows communication without requiring direct connections or knowledge of each other's presence.

In MQTT's Publish-Subscribe pattern, a central intermediary known as a Broker takes on the role of routing and distributing all messages. Publishers forward messages with specific topics to the Broker, while subscribers express interest in certain topics to receive relevant messages from the Broker.

MQTT Publish-Subscribe Model

MQTT Publish-Subscribe Model

MQTT's flexibility allows it to integrate seamlessly with existing healthcare information systems and electronic health record (EHR) platforms. This facilitates interoperability and ensures that medical devices communicate effectively within the broader healthcare ecosystem.

As the Internet of Things (IoT) permeates healthcare, lab equipment joins the connected ecosystem. MQTT stands out as the premier protocol for enabling connectivity, allowing for remote monitoring and control of millions of devices. This digital leap offers unprecedented scalability and real-time access to data.

Key Benefits of MQTT Integration in Medical Device Connectivity

Real-time Data Accessibility

MQTT facilitates real-time data exchange between medical lab devices and connected systems. This instantaneous communication allows healthcare professionals to access critical information promptly, leading to faster decision-making and improved patient outcomes.

Enhanced Scalability

As medical labs evolve with technological advancements, MQTT provides a scalable solution. New devices can be easily integrated into the existing network, ensuring that the lab stays at the forefront of innovation without compromising efficiency.

Reliability and Quality of Service

In healthcare, reliability is non-negotiable. MQTT's QoS (Quality of Service) levels ensure that messages are delivered reliably, minimizing the risk of data loss or delays. MQTT supports persistent connections, allowing medical devices to stay connected to the network even during intermittent connectivity issues. This ensures that critical data is not lost and can be transmitted as soon as the connection is restored.

Reduced Latency

Medical diagnoses often require swift responses. MQTT's low-latency communication ensures that data reaches its destination with minimal delay, contributing to a more responsive and efficient healthcare ecosystem.

Example Workflow for Real-Time Medical Lab Monitoring

Imagine a medical lab where remote diagnostic instruments seamlessly communicate with the laboratory information system (LIS), sharing test results, equipment status, and calibration data in real-time. This interconnected ecosystem enables lab technicians and healthcare professionals to make informed decisions promptly.

Workflow for Real-Time Medical Lab Monitoring

In this example, data from on-site lab equipment using different messaging protocols are converted at the Edge to MQTT and delivered to Alibaba, AWS, Azure or Google Cloud Platforms.

NeuronEX translates various machine-to-machine communication protocols, enabling real-time data collection and unified access for equipment data such as PLCs, CNC machines, robots, SCADA systems, and smart sensors. It ensures rapid and efficient data processing by leveraging the benefits of edge computing and low-latency network architectures.

The EMQX MQTT Platform enables reliable movement of IoT data in real-time between IoT devices and cloud services, whether sensor data from lab devices to cloud, or command and control from cloud to devices. You can deploy EMQX in your own private cloud or any public cloud platform.

Combining EMQX's MQTT capabilities with NeuronEX's data transformation capabilities, organizations can realize a new era of unified data access, streamlined processes, and data-driven decision-making.


Integrating MQTT in medical labs ushers a new era of connectivity, efficiency, and improved patient care. As healthcare continues to embrace digital transformation, MQTT emerges as a cornerstone technology that empowers medical professionals to harness the full potential of their diagnostic tools. By fostering interoperability and real-time communication, MQTT paves the way for a more connected and responsive healthcare landscape, benefiting healthcare providers and their patients.

Talk to an Expert
Contact Us →