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What Is the MQTT Protocol: A Beginner's Guide

Mar 5, 2024
What Is the MQTT Protocol: A Beginner's Guide

In today's interconnected world, where devices communicate seamlessly to facilitate automation and data exchange, understanding MQTT is becoming increasingly valuable. Whether you're a developer delving into IoT projects or simply curious about how devices talk to each other over networks, this guide will walk you through the fundamentals of MQTT, its key concepts, and its practical applications.

What Is MQTT?

MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight, publish-subscribe based messaging protocol designed for resource-constrained devices and low-bandwidth, high-latency, or unreliable networks. It is widely used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications, providing efficient communication between sensors, actuators, and other devices.

Why Is MQTT the Best Protocol for IoT?

MQTT has emerged as one of the best IoT protocols due to its unique features and capabilities tailored to the specific needs of IoT systems. Some of the key reasons include:

  • Lightweight: IoT devices are often constrained in terms of processing power, memory, and energy consumption. MQTT's minimal overhead and small packet size make it ideal for these devices, as it consumes fewer resources, enabling efficient communication even with limited capabilities.

  • Reliable: IoT networks can experience high latency or unstable connections. MQTT's support for different QoS levels, session awareness, and persistent connections ensures reliable message delivery even in challenging conditions, making it well-suited for IoT applications.

  • Secure communications:

    Secure communications: Security is crucial in IoT networks as they often transmit sensitive data. MQTT supports Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption, ensuring data confidentiality during transmission. Additionally, it provides authentication and authorization mechanisms through username/password credentials or client certificates, safeguarding access to the network and its resources.

    Related content: Read our guide to MQTT security.

  • Bi-directionality: MQTT's publish-subscribe model allows for seamless bi-directional communication between devices. Clients can both publish messages to topics and subscribe to receive messages on specific topics, enabling effective data exchange in diverse IoT ecosystems without direct coupling between devices. This model also simplifies the integration of new devices, ensuring easy scalability.

  • Continuous, stateful sessions: MQTT allows clients to maintain stateful sessions with the broker, enabling the system to remember subscriptions and undelivered messages even after disconnection. Clients can also specify a keep-alive interval during connection, which prompts the broker to periodically check the connection status. If the connection is lost, the broker stores undelivered messages (depending on the QoS level) and attempts to deliver them when the client reconnects. This feature ensures reliable communication and reduces the risk of data loss due to intermittent connectivity.

  • Large-scale IoT device support: IoT systems often involve a large number of devices, requiring a protocol that can handle massive-scale deployments. MQTT's lightweight nature, low bandwidth consumption, and efficient use of resources make it well-suited for large-scale IoT applications. The publish-subscribe pattern allows MQTT to scale effectively, as it decouples sender and receiver, reducing network traffic and resource usage. Furthermore, the protocol's support for different QoS levels allows customization of message delivery based on the application's requirements, ensuring optimal performance in various scenarios.

  • Language support: IoT systems often include devices and applications developed using various programming languages. MQTT's broad language support enables easy integration with multiple platforms and technologies, fostering seamless communication and interoperability in diverse IoT ecosystems. You can visit our MQTT Client Programming blog series to learn how to use MQTT in PHP, Node.js, Python, Golang, Node.js, and other programming languages.

Learn more in our article: What is MQTT and Why is it the Best Protocol for IoT?

How Does MQTT Work?

To understand how MQTT works, you need to first master the concepts of MQTT Client, MQTT Broker, Publish-Subscribe mode, Topic, and QoS:

MQTT Client

Any application or device running the MQTT client library is an MQTT client. For example, an instant messaging app that uses MQTT is a client, various sensors that use MQTT to report data are a client, and various MQTT testing tools are also a client.

MQTT Broker

The MQTT Broker handles client connection, disconnection, subscription, and unsubscription requests, and routing messages. A powerful MQTT broker can support massive connections and million-level message throughput, helping IoT service providers focus on business and quickly create a reliable MQTT application.

For more details on MQTT brokers, please check the blog MQTT Broker: How It Works, Popular Options, and Quickstart.

Publish–subscribe pattern

The publish-subscribe pattern differs from the client-server pattern in that it separates the client that sends messages (publisher) from the client that receives messages (subscriber). Publishers and subscribers do not need to establish a direct connection, and the MQTT Broker is responsible for routing and distributing all messages.

The following diagram shows the MQTT publish/subscribe process. The temperature sensor connects to the MQTT server as a client and publishes temperature data to a topic (e.g., Temperature), and the server receives the message and forwards it to the client subscribed to the Temperature topic.

Publish–subscribe pattern


The MQTT protocol routes messages based on topic. The topic distinguishes the hierarchy by slash /, which is similar to URL paths, for example:




MQTT topic support the following wildcards: + and #.

  • +: indicates a single level of wildcards, such as a/+ matching a/x or a/y.
  • #: indicates multiple levels of wildcards, such as a/# matching a/x, a/b/c/d.

For more details on MQTT topics, please check the blog MQTT Topics and Wildcards: A Beginner's Guide.

Quality of Service (QoS)

MQTT provides three kinds of Quality of Service and guarantees messaging reliability in different network environments.

  • QoS 0: The message is delivered at most once. If the client is not available currently, it will lose this message.
  • QoS 1: The message is delivered at least once.
  • QoS 2: The message is delivered only once.

For more details on MQTT QoS, please check the blog MQTT QoS 0, 1, 2 Explained: A Quickstart Guide.

The MQTT Workflow

Now that we understand the basic components of MQTT, let’s see how the general workflow works:

  1. Clients initiate a connection to the broker using TCP/IP, with optional TLS/SSL encryption for secure communication. Clients provide authentication credentials and specify a clean or persistent session.
  2. Clients either publish messages to specific topics or subscribe to topics to receive messages. Publishing clients send messages to the broker, while subscribing clients express interest in receiving messages on particular topics.
  3. The broker receives published messages and forwards them to all clients subscribed to the relevant topics. It ensures reliable message delivery according to the specified Quality of Service (QoS) level and manages message storage for disconnected clients based on session type.

Getting Started with MQTT: Quick Tutorial

Now we will show you how to start using MQTT with a few simple demos. Before we begin, you need to prepare an MQTT Broker and an MQTT Client.

Prepare an MQTT Broker

EMQX is a scalable, distributed MQTT messaging platform that supports unlimited connections, offers seamless integration, and can be deployed anywhere. It provides various editions to cater to the varied requirements of users.

Fully Managed Cloud Service

The fully managed cloud service is the easiest way to start an MQTT service. EMQX Serverless is a multi-tenant MQTT service with pay-as-you-go pricing and auto-scaling features. It can start in minutes and runs in 17 regions across AWS, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure.

Try EMQX Serverless
Forever free under 1M session minutes/month.
Get Started →

Free Public MQTT Broker

In this guide, we will utilize the free public MQTT broker provided by EMQ, built on EMQX Platform. The server access details are as follows:

  • Broker Address:
  • TCP Port: 1883
  • WebSocket Port: 8083

Prepare an MQTT Client

In this post, we will use the MQTT client tool provided by MQTTX that supports browser access: MQTT X also provides a desktop client and a command line tool.

MQTTX is an elegant cross-platform MQTT 5.0 desktop client that runs on macOS, Linux, and Windows. Its user-friendly chat-style interface enables users to easily create multiple MQTT/MQTTS connections and subscribe/publish MQTT messages.


MQTTX Preview

Currently, there are mature open-source MQTT client libraries for all programming languages. We have selected popular MQTT client libraries & SDKs in various programming languages and provided code examples to help you quickly understand the use of MQTT clients.

Create an MQTT Connection

Before using the MQTT protocol to communicate, the client needs to create an MQTT connection to connect to the broker.

Go to with your browser and click on the New Connection button in the middle of the page and you will see the following page.

Create an MQTT connection

We enter Simple Demo in Name and click the Connect button in the upper right corner to create an MQTT connection. The following indicates that the connection is established successfully.

MQTT connection successful

To learn more about MQTT connection parameters, please check out our blog post: How to Set Parameters When Establishing an MQTT Connection.

Subscribe to The Wildcard Topic

Next, we subscribe to the wildcard topic sensor/+/temperature in the Simple Demo connection created earlier, which will receive the temperature data reported by all sensors.

As shown below, click the New Subscription button and enter the topic sensor/+/temperature in the Topic field in the pop-up box, keeping the default QoS at 0.

MQTT Subscribe

Once the subscription is successful, you will see an additional record in the middle of the subscription list.

MQTT subscription is successful

Publish MQTT Messages

Next, we click the + button on the left menu to create two connections, Sensor 1 and Sensor 2 respectively, to simulate two temperature sensors.

Create MQTT connections

Once the connection is created, you will see three connections and the online status dots to the left of the connections will all be green.

MQTT connection created successfully

Select the Sensor 1 connection, enter the publish topic sensor/1/temperature in the bottom left part of the page, enter the following JSON format message in the message box, and click the publish button at the bottom right to send the message.

  "msg": "17.2"

Publish MQTT messages

The message is sent successfully as follows.

MQTT message is sent successfully

Using the same steps, publish the following JSON message to the sensor/2/temperature topic in the Sensor 2 connection.

  "msg": "18.2"

You will see two new messages for the Simple Demo connection.

MQTT notification

Click on the Simple Demo connection and you will see two messages sent by the two sensors.

MQTT messages

MQTT Features Demonstration

Retained Message

When the MQTT client publishes a message to the server, Retained Message flag can be set. The Retained Message resides on the message server, and subsequent subscribers can still receive the message when they subscribe to the topic.

As shown below, we are sending two messages to the retained_message topic in the Sensor 1 connection with the Retain option checked.

MQTT Retained Message

Then, we subscribe to the retained_message topic in the Simple Demo connection. After the subscription is successful, the second retained message sent by Sensor 1 will be received, which shows that the server will only keep the last retained message for a topic.

MQTT Retained Message

For more details on Retained Message, please check the blog The Beginner's Guide to MQTT Retained Messages.

Clean Session

In general, an MQTT client can only receive messages published by other clients when it is online. If the client is offline and then online, it will not receive messages during the offline period.

However, if the client connects with Clean Session set to false and goes online again with the same Client ID, then the message server will keep a certain amount of offline messages for the client and send them to the client when it comes online again.

The public MQTT server used for this demonstration is set to keep offline messages for 5 minutes and the maximum number of messages is 1000 (no QoS 0 messages).

Next, we create an MQTT 3.1.1 connection and demonstrate the clean session with QoS 1.

MQTT 5 uses Clean Start and Session Expiry Interval to improve Clean Session. For details, please refer to the blog Clean Start and Session Expiry Interval.

Create a connection named MQTT V3, set Clean Session to false, and choose MQTT version 3.1.1.

MQTT Clean Session

Subscribe to clean_session_false topic after successful connection, and set QoS to 1.

MQTT subscribe

After the successful subscription, click the Disconnect button in the upper right corner.

Disconnect MQTT connection

Next, create a connection named MQTT_V3_Publish, and the MQTT version is also set to 3.1.1. After the successful connection, publish three messages to the clean_session_false topic.

Publish MQTT messages

Then select the MQTT_V3 connection, click the connect button to connect to the server, and you will receive three offline messages.

MQTT messages

For more details on Clean Session, please check the blog MQTT Persistent Session and Clean Session Explained.

Last Will

When the MQTT client makes a CONNECT request to the server, it can set whether to send the flag of Will Message, as well as the Topic and Payload.

When the MQTT client is abnormally offline (the DISCONNECT message is not sent to the server before the client disconnects), the MQTT server will publish a will message.

As follows, we create a connection named Last Will.

  • To see the effect quickly, we set Keep Alive to 5 seconds.
  • Set Last-Will Topic to last_will.
  • Set Last-Will QoS to 1.
  • Set Last-Will Retain to true.
  • Set Last-Will Payload to offline.

MQTT Last Will

After the connection is successful, we disconnect the computer network for more than 5 seconds (simulating an abnormal client disconnection), and then turn on the network again.

Then start the Simple Demo connection, and subscribe to the last_will topic. You will receive the will message set by the Last Will connection.

MQTT Last Will

For more details on MQTT Will Message, please check the blog Use of MQTT Will Message.


QUIC, a new transport protocol by Google running over UDP, is revolutionizing internet connections by reducing latency and improving data transfer rates. Introducing it into MQTT will benefit scenarios with unreliable networks or low-latency requirements like connected cars and industrial IoT. EMQX and future MQTT versions are embracing MQTT over QUIC, marking a significant shift in IoT connectivity standards.

For more details, please check out the blog: MQTT over QUIC: Next-Generation IoT Standard Protocol.

MQTT Serverless

Serverless MQTT broker emerges as a cutting-edge architectural innovation, enabling rapid deployment of MQTT services with just a few clicks. Moreover, serverless MQTT offers unparalleled flexibility with the seamless scaling of resources and the pay-as-you-go pricing model. It is poised to create a future where a free serverless MQTT broker is available for every IoT developer.

Try EMQX Serverless
Forever free under 1M session minutes/month.
Get Started →

MQTT Multi-Tenancy

Multi-tenancy architecture is the vital aspect of serverless MQTT broker. IoT devices from different users or tenants can connect to the same large-scale MQTT cluster while keeping their data and business logic isolated from other tenants. MQTT broker with multi-tenancy support will reduce management overhead and allow greater flexibility for complex scenarios or large-scale IoT applications.

For more details, please check out the blog: Multi-Tenancy Architecture in MQTT: Key Points, Benefits, and Challenges.

MQTT Sparkplug 3.0

MQTT Sparkplug defines how to connect industrial devices, including sensors, actuators, PLCs, and gateways using MQTT. It aimed to simplify connecting and communicating with disparate industrial devices and achieve efficient industrial data acquisition, processing, and analysis. The latest 3.0 version with more advanced features has the potential to be more widely adopted in the Industrial IoT.

For more details, please check out the blog: MQTT Sparkplug: Bridging IT and OT for IIoT in Industry 4.0.

MQTT Unified Namespace

Unified Namespace is a solution architecture built on the MQTT broker for Industrial IoT and Industry 4.0. It connects industrial devices, sensors, and applications, such as SCADA, MES, and ERP, with star topology using a central MQTT broker. By adopting Unified Namespace, it is possible to allow OT and IT systems to exchange data more efficiently and finally unify them in the IoT era.

For more details, please check out the blog: Unified Namespace (UNS): Next-Generation Data Fabric for IIoT.

MQTT Geo-Distribution

MQTT Geo-Distribution is an innovative architecture that allows MQTT brokers deployed in different regions or clouds to work together as a single cluster. It enables organizations to build a Global MQTT Access Network across multi-cloud, where devices and applications connected locally from the closest network endpoint can communicate with each other regardless of their physical location.

MQTT Streams

MQTT Streams is an anticipated extension of the MQTT protocol designed to manage high-volume, high-frequency data streams in real-time within MQTT brokers. This innovation enables historical message replay, ensuring data consistency, auditing, and compliance. The built-in stream processing capabilities will simplify IoT data processing stacks, making it an invaluable tool for real-time data management in MQTT-based IoT applications.

Learn More About MQTT

We have now completed our journey to the fundamental concepts of MQTT and its usage process. You can now put your knowledge to start using the MQTT protocol. For more information on MQTT topics, wildcards, retained messages, last will, and other features, you can check out the "MQTT Guide 2024: Beginner to Advanced" article series provided by EMQ. This series will take you through the advanced applications of MQTT and help you get started with MQTT application and service development.

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