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IIoT Explained: Examples, Technologies, Benefits and Challenges

Neuron Team
Aug 3, 2023
IIoT Explained: Examples, Technologies, Benefits and Challenges

What is the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)?

The industrial internet of things, or IIoT, is a term used to describe the application of internet of things (IoT) technology in industrial settings. It encompasses the integration of advanced sensors, software, and machinery with internet connectivity to collect, analyze, and act upon vast amounts of data. This data-driven approach enables real-time decision-making and predictive analytics, leading to improved operational efficiency, reduced costs, and improved product quality.

IIoT is a key component of Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, characterized by the fusion of digital, physical, and biological technologies. It's revolutionizing traditional industries, facilitating the transformation from manual and labor-intensive processes to automated, data-driven operations.

IIoT is not just about technology; it's about leveraging data to drive business results for manufacturers. With IIoT, you can monitor equipment performance, predict failures, optimize logistics, improve product quality, and more. It's about creating a smarter, more efficient, and more profitable industrial operation.

IoT vs. IIoT

IoT, or internet of things, is a broader term that refers to the interconnected network of devices, vehicles, appliances, and more, that communicate and exchange data via the internet. It covers a wide range of applications, from smart homes and wearable technology to connected cars and smart cities.

IIoT is a subset of IoT that specifically deals with industrial applications. It's focused on enhancing industrial processes and operations through data-driven insights. IIoT involves more complex systems, stringent security requirements, and critical operational controls. It's about improving efficiency, productivity, and safety in industries such as manufacturing, energy, and transportation.

While both IoT and IIoT are powered by similar technologies such as sensors, connectivity, and data analytics, the key difference lies in their application and impact. IoT enhances our everyday lives by making our homes, cities, and devices smarter. IIoT, in contrast, transforms industries by revolutionizing how businesses operate and compete.

Examples of IIoT Applications and Use Cases

Smart Manufacturing and Factory

IIoT is a driving force behind the smart factory concept, where machinery and equipment can improve processes through automation and self-optimization. IIoT sensors capture data on machine performance, environmental conditions, and product quality in real-time. This data is then analyzed to optimize operations, predict equipment failures, and automate quality control, leading to increased productivity and reduced downtime.

To illustrate the impact IIoT can have on manufacturers, a study by McKinsey showed that predictive maintenance powered by IoT can reduce maintenance costs by up to 30% and cut downtime by a massive 45%. IIoT is revolutionizing the industry, transforming traditional factories into smart, connected, and efficient operations.

Learn more in our detailed guide to smart manufacturing

Energy and Utilities

In the energy sector, IIoT can significantly enhance efficiency, safety, and reliability. IIoT-enabled smart grids use sensors, connectivity, and data analytics to monitor and control electricity distribution, optimizing energy usage, and reducing waste. Similarly, IIoT applications in oil and gas involve real-time monitoring of drilling operations, predictive maintenance of equipment, and remote control of offshore platforms.

For example, several energy companies have used IIoT to monitor and analyze data from wind turbines. This enables them to optimize turbine performance, reduce maintenance costs, and increase energy output.

Transportation and Logistics

IIoT is revolutionizing transportation and logistics by enabling real-time tracking, predictive maintenance, and smart logistics. Using IIoT devices, companies can monitor vehicle performance, track shipments in real-time, and optimize routes based on traffic and weather conditions. This leads to improved operational efficiency, reduced costs, and enhanced customer service.

For example, logistics companies are implementing IIoT to track fleets of trucks in real-time. The data collected enables predictive maintenance, optimized fuel consumption, and improved route planning, which can result in significant cost savings and improved service delivery.


Healthcare is another industry where IIoT is making a significant impact. From remote patient monitoring and telemedicine to smart hospitals and predictive analytics, IIoT is transforming healthcare delivery. It enables real-time patient monitoring, early disease detection, personalized treatment, and improved patient outcomes.

For example, some healthcare providers use IIoT to monitor patient vital signs in real-time, allowing for immediate intervention in critical cases. This can improve patient outcomes and also reduce healthcare costs, highlighting the potential of IIoT in healthcare.

Key Technologies in IIoT Architecture

Sensors and Devices

Sensors and devices form the foundation of IIoT. These are the tools that capture data from the physical environment and convert it into digital format. They can monitor a wide range of parameters, including temperature, pressure, humidity, light, sound, and motion. This data is then transmitted to a central system for analysis and action.

For instance, in a manufacturing plant, sensors can monitor machine performance, detecting any abnormalities or signs of potential failure. In the energy sector, sensors can measure power consumption, helping to optimize energy usage and reduce waste.

Connectivity Technologies

Connectivity is a critical component of IIoT, enabling the transfer of data from sensors and devices to a central system. Various technologies can be used for connectivity, including Wi-Fi, cellular networks, satellite communication, and low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs). The choice of connectivity technology depends on factors such as the volume of data, transmission range, power consumption, and cost.

For example, a logistics company might use cellular networks to track its vehicles in real-time, while a smart factory might use Wi-Fi for internal communication and control.

Messaging Protocols

Messaging protocols are the language that devices use to communicate and exchange data within the IIoT system. They define the format and rules for data exchange between devices, ensuring that all parts of the system can understand and process the data effectively. Different protocols are used depending on the use case, as each one has its unique features, advantages, and disadvantages.

For example, MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is a commonly used messaging protocol in IIoT systems due to its lightweight design and reliable data delivery, even under unreliable network conditions.

Edge Computing

Edge computing is a key technology in IIoT architecture, addressing the challenges of data volume, latency, and connectivity. It involves processing data at the edge of the network, close to the source, rather than sending it to a central cloud for processing. This reduces the amount of data that needs to be transmitted, saving bandwidth and improving response times.

For instance, in a smart factory, edge computing can enable real-time control of machinery, reducing downtime and improving efficiency.

Cloud Platforms

Cloud platforms play a crucial role in IIoT, providing the infrastructure for data storage, processing, and analysis. They offer scalable, flexible, and cost-effective solutions for managing vast amounts of data. Moreover, cloud platforms enable advanced data analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, unlocking valuable insights from the data.

For example, a healthcare provider might use a cloud platform to store and analyze patient data, facilitating early disease detection and personalized treatment.

Learn more in our detailed guide to IIoT platform

Data Analytics and AI

Data analytics and AI are at the heart of IIoT, turning raw data into actionable insights. Data analytics involves examining, cleaning, and modeling data to discover useful information, draw conclusions, and support decision-making. AI, on the other hand, involves creating systems that can learn from data, make decisions, and improve over time.

For instance, in the energy sector, data analytics and AI can be used to predict equipment failures, optimize energy usage, and reduce costs.

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Benefits of IIoT

Here are some of the key benefits IIoT provides for manufacturers:

Increased Efficiency

IIoT systems, which integrate physical machinery with networked sensors and software, gather and analyze data in real-time, allowing businesses to optimize operations, reduce downtime and increase productivity.

For instance, a manufacturing plant leveraging IIoT can predict equipment failures before they occur, reducing the instances of unplanned downtime. This proactive approach ensures a smooth and efficient production process, boosting profitability, and improving customer satisfaction.

Improved Safety

Safety is paramount in any industrial setting. IIoT contributes significantly to enhancing safety standards across various industries. By leveraging IIoT, businesses can monitor machinery and environmental conditions in real-time, thereby detecting potential hazards and immediately addressing them before they escalate.

For instance, in the oil and gas industry, IIoT sensors can detect gas leaks or pressure changes in pipelines, triggering alerts in real-time. This not only prevents potential accidents but also protects employees' health and safety.

Quality Control

High-quality products and services are key to manufacturing success. IIoT is instrumental in achieving this goal by providing real-time data on various production parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and more. This data helps businesses maintain optimal conditions for production, thus ensuring consistent product quality.

Moreover, IIoT enables businesses to predict and prevent potential quality issues before they occur. By analyzing patterns in historical and real-time data, businesses can identify deviations from standard production parameters, thereby preventing substandard product batches from reaching the market.

Cost Reduction

IIoT is a game-changer when it comes to cost reduction. By optimizing operations, improving product quality, and reducing unplanned downtime, IIoT helps businesses save substantial amounts of money.

In addition, IIoT can help companies reduce energy consumption. By monitoring and controlling energy usage in real-time, businesses can optimize their energy consumption patterns, which also leads to significant cost savings.

Challenges of IIoT

While the benefits of IIoT are immense, implementing this technology is not without its challenges. It's crucial for businesses to understand these challenges in order to effectively leverage IIoT.


As businesses become more connected, they also become more vulnerable to cyber attacks. These attacks can lead to data breaches, causing significant financial and reputational damage. To mitigate this risk, businesses need to implement robust security protocols to protect their IIoT systems. This includes encryption, two-factor authentication, and regular security audits.


Integrating IIoT with existing systems can be a complex task. Businesses often face challenges in integrating the data from various sources and making it usable.

To overcome this challenge, businesses need to invest in robust integration platforms that can handle the complexity of IIoT data. Additionally, they need to ensure their systems are interoperable, allowing seamless data exchange between different devices and platforms.

Data Management

Data management is another significant challenge in IIoT implementation. IIoT systems generate massive amounts of data, which needs to be stored, processed, and analyzed effectively.

To manage this data effectively, businesses need to invest in scalable data storage solutions and advanced analytics tools. Additionally, they need to implement effective data governance policies to ensure data quality and compliance with regulatory requirements. Another innovation that helps with data management is Unified Namespace, which provides a consistent way for naming and addressing devices on an IIoT network.

Skills Gap

The rapid evolution of IIoT technology has led to a skill gap in the industry. There is a shortage of professionals who have the necessary skills to implement and manage IIoT systems.

To address this challenge, businesses need to invest in training and development programs to upskill their workforce. Additionally, they can partner with IIoT service providers who have the necessary expertise and resources.

Simplifying IIoT Connectivity with EMQX and Neuron

EMQ provides Neuron, a lightweight connectivity server for industrial dataops and data-centric automation, tightly integrated with our industry-leading MQTT broker. Neuron provides several significant benefits for IIoT, simplifying connectivity, enhancing data integration, and enabling real-time communication and analytics.

If you are a managing an IIoT deployment, EMQX and Neuron can help with:

  1. IT Connectivity: EMQX broker offers a wide range of data bridges, facilitating seamless integration with over 40 cloud services and enterprise systems. This enables instant access to data across diverse applications, reducing the cost and complexity of custom bridge development. EMQX supports integration with popular databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, and more, as well as technologies like Redis, Oracle, SAP, and Kafka. This rich set of connectors ensures efficient IT connectivity and data exchange within the IIoT ecosystem.
  2. OT Connectivity: Neuron serves as a protocol gateway, providing a comprehensive set of industrial connectivity options essential for successful IIoT deployments. With support for over 30 industrial protocols such as Modbus, Ethernet/IP, Profinet I/O, OPC-UA, IEC104, BACnet, and more, Neuron enables seamless communication with various devices and systems across the operational technology (OT) landscape. Whether it's PLCs, building automation systems, CNC machines, or robotics, Neuron offers a powerful range of drivers to ensure reliable OT connectivity and data acquisition.
  3. Unified Namespace: EMQX and Neuron can be used together to create a unified namespace for industrial IoT applications. A unified namespace is a common naming convention for MQTT topics that allows devices and applications to communicate with each other regardless of location or protocol. All devices and applications use the same MQTT topic hierarchy based on a common set of naming conventions and data models. This allows devices to discover and communicate with each other without the need for complex routing or translation mechanisms.
  4. Data Replication: By leveraging the EMQX brokers high speed throughput and low latency capabilities, OMH can provide multiple location high speed data replication. High-speed replicating data across multiple manufacturing locations ensures consistency in the data shared among different locations. When data is replicated, each location has access to the same set of information, ensuring that decisions and actions are based on the most up-to-date and synchronized data. This promotes uniformity in operations, reduces discrepancies, and enables standardized processes across all sites.
  5. Interoperability and Scalability: EMQX broker and Neuron gateway can be used together to ensure the interoperability and scalability of the manufacturing information infrastructure by establishing a more flexible and interconnected data exchange approach. A centralized data repository is established to store and manage all the data collected from various levels of the information systems. This repository acts as a central hub where data from field-level devices, SCADA, MES and ERP is consolidated.
  6. Edge and Cloud Stream Processing: Neuron gateways may offer edge computing capabilities, enabling data preprocessing and filtering at the edge of the network. This reduces latency, conserves bandwidth, and optimizes data transmission to the central MQTT broker. Once the data is in the EMQX broker, it can be further processed, analyzed, and integrated with other systems. This could involve data storage in databases, real-time analytics, or forwarding the data to cloud platforms for further processing.
  7. MQTT Sparkplug: EMQX is a popular MQTT broker that supports the Sparkplug protocol, while Neuron is an industrial IoT platform that can be used to collect data from industrial devices and generate Sparkplug messages for applications. Neuron can collect the data from the devices and publish Sparkplug messages to the EMQX broker based on the data by reporting changes. EMQX will forward the messages to the application that subscribes to the relevant Sparkplug topic.
  8. OPC UA over MQTT: Neuron, as an industrial connectivity gateway, could have been updated to include native support for OPC UA over MQTT. Any data formats can be re-organized into OPC UA formats and sent over MQTT to EMQX broker that can handle large-scale OPC UA over MQTT deployments with high throughput and reliability to the subscribers.

By combining the capabilities of EMQX as an MQTT broker with Neuron's industrial connectivity gateway, IIoT connectivity is streamlined, enabling seamless communication between industrial devices and backend systems. The integration of these components simplifies data exchange, enhances data processing, and optimizes IIoT deployments for improved efficiency, reliability, and real-time decision-making in industrial applications.

Learn more about Neuron: The Industrial IoT Connectivity Server

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